Hello Dosto, Aaj baat karengey The Great Depression jo 1929 main America main aaya tha, jaanengey iske baare main ki kaise achaanak stock exchange crash ho jaata hai, kyoun banks jo hai fail ho jaatey hai aur in sab crashes ki wajah se kafi saare logo ki job chali jaati hai, kai logo ko suicide bhi karna padta hai.

What Was The Great Depression in Hindi


Aur yeh sab kuch 1 hafte main hua aur is 1 hafte main America ko billions dollar ka kusan hua aur 10 saal tak yeh The Great Depression chalta raha.

Haalat yeh ho gayi thi ki logo ke paas paisa nahi tha kapdey nahi they log Wall street ki building se suicide kar rahe they, log sadko per aa gaye they aur is wajah se logo ne jhopadpatti banaayi aur in johpadpattiyo ko naam diya gaya "Hoover Village" yeh Hoover Village kyoun naam diya gaya yeh hum aage jaangey.

The Great Depression Background

Great Depression hone ki sab se badi wajah thi Stock exchange ka crash aur Bank failure, yeh hua is liye kyoun ki 1929 main achaanak sab logo ne saare ke saare stocks bech diye, Yeh hua tha 29th October 1929 uss din Tuesday tha aur aaj uss din ko Black Tuesday se yaad kiya jaata hai.

Ab jaise maine kaha ki Great Depression ke hone sab se badi wajah thi Stock exchange, toh hume yaha per yeh jaana lena chaiyeh ki Stock exchange kaam kaise karta hai.

How Stock Market Works

Suppose aapko ek business start karna hai lekin aapke paas iske liye paise nahi hai, toh ab aapke pass do option hai ya toh aap kisi se udhaar le saktey hai ya phir aap market se paisa utha saktey hai, zyaadatar business man dusre option ko choose karna pasand karengey agar aapki company ki value laakho main hai.

Toh mann lijye ki aapki company ki value hai 50 lakh, lekin 50 lakh aapke pass hai nahi toh ab aap kya karogey aap market se paisa uthaaogey. Exactly aap kya karogey ki 50 lakh ke share issue kar dogey, ab aap isse unit main divide kar dogey matlab aap 50 lakh ke share ko 1 lakh main divide kar dogey is tahar aapke paas 50 share ho gaye aapki company ke. Ab log aapke shares kharidengey us wajah se aapke paas paisa aayga un paise ko aap apne business main invest karogey usse aapko profit milega aur profit ka kuch hissa aap unh logo ko dengey jin logo ne aapke share kharide they.

Yaha per main aapko ek aur baat bata du ki agar aapko aapki company ke share issue karne hai toh aapko aapki company ko stock exchange main list karwaana hoga taaki log aapke share kharid sake aur bech sake. aur yeh poori prakriya brocker ke thorugh hoti hai.

India ka stock exchange hai BSE aur NSE aur USA ka stock exchange hai Wall street.

Ab 1929 main kya hua ki logo ne ek dum se saare shares bechna shuru kar diya ek afwaah ki wajah se, afwaah yeh phelaai gayi thi ki jin jin stock main jisne bhi paise lagaaye hai woh stock doobne waala hai toh iss darr ki wajah se logo ne share bechna shuru kar diya. Jisse hua yeh ki jihone bhi share kahride they unhone bech diye aur ab koi share kharid nahi raha tha jiss wajah se economy main circulation kam hua aur iss se liquidity maintain nahi rahi, aur iss wajah se economy fall ho gayi.

Ab jaise USA haal main duniya ka super power hai waise hi tab bhi tha is wajah se log USA main invest zyaada kartey hai, USA per bharosa zyaada kartey hai. Uss waqt hua yeh tha ki World War 1 ke baad USA ne ek scheme nikali thi Buy now pay later, ab isse hua yeh ki logo ne bahut saari cheeze kharid li kyoun ki aise koi scheme pehley kisi bhi desh ne introduce nahi ki thi.

Aur dusra tab liberty bond issue hotey they yeh darasal War bonds they toh us waqt yeh bonds ko sab ne kharida aur logo ke paise ko USA war main use karta tha.

Private companies ne yaha yeh socha ki agar yeh log government bond kharid rahe hai toh private bond bhi kahridengey, toh kaafi saari companies ne apne share issue kar diye aur logo ko kaha ki humaare share bhi kharido. Logo ne aur companies ne yeh socha ki yeh sab issi tahra acche se chalega aur sab paisa kamaayengey. Lekin 1929 main aisa hua ki kisi ne bhi iski kalpna bhi nahi ki hogi.

Toh abhi tak toh humne sirf background jaana hai ki hua kya tha, ab iske causes jaangey.

Main Causes

Over Production

Toh sab se pehley cheez yaha hui thi woh thi Over Production yeh over production specially Agriculture sector main hua tha, Agriculture sector bahut important hota hai kisi bhi desh ke liye kyoun ki wohi main contributor hota hai economy main, kyoun ki Agriculture aayga toh usse product aayga phir usse process kiya jaayga usse manufacture kiya jaayga aur logo ko becha jaayga toh ek tahra se chain judi hui hai Agriculture se.

Lekin yaha per Agriculture main over production hua, product zyaada they lekin uske kharidne waale kam they.

Unequal Distribution

Dusra cause tha Unequal Distribution of Wealth matlab 3-4 % logo ke paas 50% ki equal wealth thi matlab kuch log super rich they woh log sab control kar rahe they, ab kyoun ki yeh kuch log rich they toh reality se bekhabar they aur isse hua yeh ki paise ko sahi se distribution nahi hua.

Monetary Policy

Ab jaise humne uper dekha Over Production aur Unequality isne direct impact kiya Monetary Policy ko, jo kaafi azeeb thi jaise Buy now pay later aur currency ka bhi sahi se circulation nahi tha. Yaha per tha yeh ki is main government ka koi interfere nahi tha matlab Wall Street jo kar rahi usse karne do, government pata hi nahi tha ki Wall Street kaam kaise karta hai.

High Tariffs and War Debts

Phir aata hai High Tariffs and War Debts, us waqt government ne bahut zyaada import duty lagaai thi iske wajah se bhi economy giri.

Aur inn sab ki wajah se Stock Market crash hua aur financial panic phel gaya.

Financial panic kyoun phela? Maan lo agar aapko koi kehta hai ki State Bank of India bandh hone waala hai toh ab aap kya karogey? aapne agar SBI ke stock main paisa lagaaya hai toh aap toh apna paisa nikal longey us stock ko bech dogey, ab isse kya hoga ki economy main circulation kam ho jaayga aur circulation kam hota hai toh money ki value kam ho jaaygi. Aisa hi kuch afwaah pehlaai gayi thi us waqt.

Herbert Hoover

1928 tak sab theek jaa raha tha aur 1928 main Herbet Hoover jo republican party se they woh election jeet jaatey hai. kyoun ki unhone kaafi saare promise kiya they American civilians ko aur bahut sapne dikhaaye they. Lekin 1929 main poora ka poora stock market collpase ho jaata hai aur yeh sab hota Hebert Hoover ki wajah se.

Hua yeh tha ki Herbert Hoover kaafi saari companies ko lekar aaye aur is main se bahut saari companies fake thi, ab market main itni saari companies hone ki wajah se log kaafi khush ho gaye kyoun ki jin share ki kimat dugni thi woh aadhi kimat per mil rahe they, aur jaise maine kaha ki wall street main government ka koi interference nahi tha sirf government hi nahi logo ko bhi nahi pata tha ki wall street kaam kaise karta hai.

Effects


  • Americans ne apne saare paise bank main se nikal diye jiske wajah se bankig sector bhi collapse ho gaya.
  • Logo ki salaries kaati gayi, waise bhi Great Depression ke waqt unemployment bahut zyaad tha toh kaafi kam logo ko salaries di jaati thi aur us main aadhi salary toh kaat di jaati thi.
  • Unemployment kaafi bhad gaya.
  • Farm Income bhi kaafi giri.


Ab inn sab wajah se American ki economy poori tahar se collapse ho gayi.

1933 main Franklin Roosevelt America ke president bantey hai aur bahut saare program le kar aaye, kyoun ki kabhi bhi aisa koi fall down hota hai toh sarkar ka sab se pehla kaam hota hai ki jo companies doobi hai un companies ko uthana aur system main kaha kami aayi uss kami ko door karna, toh inn saari cheezo ke liye Franklin Roosevelt kuch programs le kar aaye.

Lekin in programs se koi zyaada farq nahi pada yeh Great Depression khatam hua 1945 main world war 2 ke baad.

Toh yeh thi poori story Great Depression ke piche i hope aapko yeh article pasand aaya hoga.

Thank you.