Aaj hum baat karengey ki kaise USA ka President chunna jaata hai. Yeh ek bahut hi ahem topic hai aur USA main 2020 main presidential ke election hone waale hai

Toh bahut kuch sikhne ko milega aapko shuru se aakhir tak poori process main aapko bataaunga ki kaise USA ka President chunna jaata hai.

USA ka President kaise chuna jaata hai yeh hume jaana kyoun zaroori hai? Dekhieyh hum sab ko pata hai ki aaj agar koi superpower hai toh woh USA hai, dusra sab se develop democracy main USA aata hai. Toh jaana toh zaroori hai aur students ke liye toh bahut hi zyaada zaroori hai.


United States Presidential Election Process - Hindi

P.O.T.U.S

P.O.T.U.S matlab President of the United States jitni bhi security agencies jo hai jo president ke raksha karti hai woh President ko P.O.T.U.S bhi kehti hai shortform main.

Toh jo elected head of state aur head of government hota hai usse kehtey hai President, aur jo government ki executive branch ko jo lead karta hai woh bhi President lead karta hai, aur woh Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces bhi hota hai.

India main alag hai India main executive branch ko lead karne ka kaam Prime Minister ka hai aur India main Head of state President hota hai aur elected head of government hota hai Prime Minister.

Toh USA main kya hai ki Prime Minister aur President ko combine kar diya gaya hai aur waha per Prime Minister nahi hota.

America main President term hoti hai 4 years aur sirf woh 2 baar election lad sakta hai 2 se zyaada nahi, lekin yeh rule pehley se aisa nahi tha yeh rule aaya 1951 main unke constitution main kuch badlaav kiya gaya aur uske baad yeh rule aaya. India main  aisa nahi hai agar kisi bhi politician ko jitni bhi baar election ladna hai woh lad sakta hai.

Aur sab se main baat yaha yeh hai ki USA main Indirect election hotey hai direct election nahi hotey. Aage hum jaaengey ki Indirect election kya hota hai.

Requirement

Candidate ki umar minimum 35 saal ki honi chaiyeh, USA born citizen hona chaiyeh dhaayan dijyega ka BORN CITIZEN only citizen nahi. Aur minimum 14 saal se woh USA main reh raha ho toh yeh requirement hai President ka election ladne ki.

US Congress

US Congress kya hai? Jaise india main sansad hai wasie hi US main hoti hai Congress. Ab kyoun ki yeh sansand jaisa hi hota hai toh sansand main humaare yaha do sadan hoti hai, ek hoti hai Loksabha aur dusri hoti hai Rajyasabha. Waise hi US Congress main hotey hai House of Representatives aur Senate.

Toh House of Representatives aur Senate main se Loksabha aur Rajyasabh kaun hai?

Loksabha hoti hai House of Representatives aur jo Rajysabha hoti hai woh hota hai Senate. Lekin itna jaan lena kaafi nahi hai inke member bhi pata hone chaiyeh, House of Representatives ke members hai 435 aur Senate ke member hai 100.

US Congress ka presidential election se koi lena dena nahi hai, India main kya hota hai ki jisse loksabha se highest majority milti hai usse Prime Minister bana diya jaata hai lekin USA main aisa nahi hai.

The Parties

Toh sab se pehli party hai Democratic Party is party ki Liberal values hai iss party ka logo hai Donkey aur iska colour hota hai hai Blue or Red jo Blue colour hai democratic party ko represent karta hai.

United States Presidential Election Process - Hindi


Iss party se bade bade famous president baney jaise, John F Kennedy, Bill Clinton aur Barack Obama.

Dusri party hai Republican Party republican party ko The Grand Old Party bhi kaha jaata hai iske pehley president they Abraham Lincoln aur dosto Republican Party Conservative khayaalto per chalti hai aur kaha jaata hai ki yeh Party ameer logo ko zyaada support karti hai kyoun ki yeh Party ka base ameer logo ke wajah se hi bana hai. Iss party se baad main George Bush bhi president baney they. Aur iss party ka logo hai Elephant.

United States Presidential Election Process - Hindi

Dusri bhi kuch parties hai lekin in do party ko muqaable choti hai jaise humaare yaha kaise BJP aur Congress hai wasie waha Democratic aur Republican Party hai.

Choti parties jaise Tea Party aur Libertarian Party yeh saari party bhi apna umedwaar khada kar sakti hai President ke liye lekin is party se President banne ki ummed kam hi hoti hai.

Ab baat karttey hai Process ki kaise USA ka Prisedent chuna jaata hai?

1 - Primaries and Caucuses

Toh Primaries aur Caucuses kya hai? Primaries aur Caucuses yeh do method hai. Dekhiyeh har party se 8-9 umedwaar khadey hotey hai President ke election ke liye toh un 8-9 main se kisi 1 ke chunaav inn primaries ke through hota hai.

Aur iss poori process main jo bhi party ke members hotey hai unka support jitna bahut zaroori hai aur jo party ke members hotey hai unka support jita jaata hai umedwaar dwaara.

Is poorey process main Delegates yeh bahut hi important hai, USA main 50 states hai toh har state se Primaries ya Causues yeh do method dwaara Delegates ka chunaav hota hai.

Ab yeh Delegates kaun hai? hum keh saktey hai ki yeh delegates Local representative hai ya Loca leader hai jo waha ki aam janta dwaara chune jaatey hai, aur yehi Delegates aage jaake apna vote daalengey inn umedwaar ke liye.

Ab jaantey hai yeh poora method hai kya?

Primary

Dekhiyeh Primary hota hai woh election jo party ke member ya phir aam voters ko huq hota hai ki woh apne delegates ke liye vote daale ek secret ballot dwaara.

For Example ek state hai California toh California main agar primary election hongey toh California main Democratic party ke jitne bhi members hai woh sabhi apne apne area main jaake delegate ka chunaav karengey aur is tahra se poorey California se 30 delegates chunne jayengey aur yeh delegates kaun chunega Democratic party ke members. Aur yehi delegates aage jaake chunegey Democratic party ke aur se President ka umedwaar.

Yeh jo process hai na is main bahut saare variation hai California main ho sakta hai ki Primary election hota ho lekin Iowa main Caucuses method apnaayi jaati hi. Chalieyh ab jaantey hai ki Caucuses method kya hai?

Caucuses

Caucuses ek informal meeting hoti hai is meeting main kisi bhi tahar ki secrecy nahi apnaayi jaati. Aur is main bhi same Party ke member ya phir aam voters ko allow kiya jaa sakta hai apne Delegates chunne ke liye.

So for example ek chota sa town hai jaha republican party ke 400 members hai toh yeh sab ke sab ek hall main ikkathey hongey aur waha meeting karengey, Toh agar 4 umedwaar hai jin main se 200 log apna haath khada ker ke kahengey ki hum iss A ko support karety hai dusre 100 log kehtey hai ki hum supoort kartey hai B ko aur bache 200 boltey hai hum support kartey hai C ko aur D ko ek bhi vote nahi milta. Toh ab yaha kya hua yaha Tie ho gaya A aur C ke bich toh ab B ko jo member hai woh toh iss race bahaar ho gaye lekin yeh jo B ke 100 log hai inko yeh decide karna hai ki yeh A ko support karengey ya B ko, toh agar yaha A jit jaata hai Toh A umedwaara ka delegate yeh chunnav jeet gaya. Toh yeh method hota hai Caucuses.

Primary aur Caucuses yeh dono method har ek state main alag tahra se hai kaafi variation hotey rehtey hai is method main.

Ab Delegates toh chun liye gaye ab aage kya? Toh jaise Delegate chunne jaatey hai toh woh aage jaatey hai National Conventions aur is process main ek word hai "Super Tuesday"  Dekhieyh Super Tuesday dosto tab hota hai jab 8 ya 10 states main ek hi din main Primaries aur Caucuses saath main hotey hai toh usse "Super Tuesday" kaha jaata hai. Aamtaur per yeh February aur March ke mahino main yeh dekhno ko milta hai.

2 - National Conventions

National Convention main woh log jaatey hai jo alag alag states se Delegates chun kar aatey hai aur yeh delegates waha jaaker Vote kartey hai aur apna umedwaar chuntey hai President election ke liye apni apni party se.

Aur jo bhi President ke chunaav ke liye umedwaar banta hai woh apna "Running Mate" chunta hai yeh Running Mate ab kya hai? Running Mate woh hota hai jo Vice President ka chunaav ladega.

3 - Campaigning and Debates

Ab hume unedwaar mil gaye President election ke liye toh ab shuru ho jaata hai Campaigning aur Debates poorey USA main rally nilkati hai lectures diye jaatey hai aur desh ke future ke liye kya karengey yeh sab bataaey hoti hai, waise hi jaise India main hota hai.

Lekin Indian main ek cheez nahi hoti jo USA main Campaigning ke waqt ki jaati hai. Woh hai Television per debates aur woh bhi 3 Debates yeh 3 debates hotey hai famous news channels per aur yeh debates poori duniya ke log dekhtey hai.

4 - The Election

Ab itna sab hone ke baad Aam chunaav hotey hai jaha aam janta apna vote deti hai, voting karne ke liye minimum age 18 saal honi chaiyeh lekin yaha yeh aam janta direct President ko vote nahi de saktey toh ab aapko main batata hu ki kyoun yeh chunaav Indirect chunaav hai.

Dekhieyh waha ki jo aam janta vote karti hai woh vote karti hai Electors ko. Ab yeh Electors kaun hai? Yeh Electors har states main Party apne aur se kuch umedwaaro ko apne area main jaane ko bolti hai aur kehti hai ki Yeh Democratic Party ya Republican Party ka Elector hai aur aap inhe vote dijye.

For Example A aur B do Electors hai Houston main, toh Houston main Democratic Party apni aur se declare karti hai A ko apna Elector aur Republican Party declare karti hai B ko, toh ab hoga kya ki Houston ke jitne bhi naagrik hai woh apna vote ya toh A ko dengey ya to B ko. Lekin jab waha ke log apna vote A ko de rahe hai toh iska matlab aap vote de rahe sidha Democratic Part ke President ki umedwaar ko. Toh yeh Electors total poorey desh main 538 hai aur in electors se mil ker banta hai Electoral College.

Aur yeh Electors har states main Population ke hisaab se hai toh inka jo number hai woh vary hota rehta hai jaise ki California main 55 hai toh Florida main sirf 29 hai.

Aur USA election main ek aur nayi cheez hoti hai jo aapko India main dekhno ko nahi milegy woh hai "Winner Takes All" Winner Takes All ka matlab hai ki agar California se 55 Electors elect hone hai Toh in 55 main se 30 Democratic Party ke Electors elect huey aur 25 Republican Party ke toh aisa maana jaayga ki iss state ko Democratic Party ne jeet liya hai aur poorey 55 Electors ab Democratic Party ko ho gaye.

Ab is Winner Take All ke wajah se hi kuch states ko Swing States kaha jaata hai matlab woh kisi bhi taraf swing kar saktey hai. For Example California state humesha Democratic Party ko hi chunta hai Texas main humesha Republican Party chun kar aati hai toh Texas ek Republican desh ban jaata hai. Lekn kuch states hai jaha per kaante ki takkar hoti hai jaise ki Florida ab Florida main 29 Electors hai toh kabhi yeh state Democratic ho jaata hai toh kabhi Republican state ho jaata hai. Toh agar Florida main kisi party ko 15 seat mil gayi aur dusri ko sirf 14 mili toh muqabla kaafi takkar ka hai, lekin yeh 29 seat us party ko chali jaaygi jisne 15 seat jeeti hai. Toh isi liye inko kaha jaata hai Swing States.

Toh Electors ka funda yeh hai ki jis bhi party ke Electors ko vote zyaada miltey hai us party ke President ke liye jo umedwaar hota hai woh yeh chunaav jeet jaata hai.

5 - Electoral College

Ab jo bhi jitne bhi Electors chun ke aaye jin jin states se woh ab waapas voting karengey apne apne state ke capital main. Aur woh 2 vote daalengey ek President ke liye aur ek Vice President ke liye. Yeh process hota hai December main aur inke vote ki ginti hoti hai January main.

Aur yeh counting January main ki jaaygi Congress main toh jo vote ki counting karega Congress, koi bhi state iss vote ki counting nahi karega.

Aur jisko 270 se zyaada vote milengey matlab 538 main se 270 jisko mil gaye woh simple majority se chunaav jeet gaya. Aur congress official declare karega winner ka naam.

United States Presidential Election Process - Hindi


Aur iske baad 20th january ko Inauguration hota hai matlab sapath samaroh.

Toh yeh tha poora process kaafi lamba aur complex process hai.

I hope ke aapko yeh article accha laga hoga. Please share zaroor karjiyega.

Thankyou.